Road system in physical world is designed for safe (secure) use – sign board, speed limit, road shoulder, proper lane separation.

There is occasion insecurity taking place.  There are many contributing factors such as:

  • Adverse weather (low visibility, slippy road, hurricane)
  • Malfunctioned equipment (vehicle)
  • Collateral damage due to other road accidents
  • Body condition of driver, under medical or drug influence
  • Inexperienced or negligence drivers

Similar principles apply in cyber world

  • Untrained user or human error
  • Failure to handle exception situation properly
  • Unpatched system components exposing to known vulnerabilities
  • Attack from peers nodes of connected system

There is one more contributing factor: if security hasn’t been integrated into design and deployment of the target system, it won’t be secure.

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